North Carolina ~ Multiple Taxes: Senate Budget Bill Includes Market-Based Sourcing, Rate Reductions

first_imgCCH Tax Day ReportThe North Carolina Senate has passed a budget bill that incorporates a number of corporate income and personal income tax changes from a previous bill (TAXDAY, 2017/04/07, S.14), including a requirement that corporate income taxpayers use market-based sourcing rules for apportioning business income to North Carolina, reductions in the corporate and personal income tax rates, an increase in the personal income tax standard deduction, a new child tax deduction based on a taxpayer’s adjusted gross income and filing status, and a cap on the mortgage interest deduction based on a taxpayer’s filing status. The legislation would also lower the franchise tax on S corporations with a tax base of $1 million or less.S.B. 257, as passed North Carolina Senate on May 12, 2017last_img read more

IRS Grants Automatic Consent to Cash Accounting Method Changes for Small Businesses

first_imgThe IRS will provide automatic consent when a small business taxpayer asks to change to the cash method of accounting. Small business taxpayers are most corporations and partnerships with average annual gross earnings of $25 million or less during the last three years.Before this year, most corporations, partnerships with corporate partners, and tax shelters had to use the accrual method of accounting once their annual gross earnings reached $5 million. However, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (P.L. 115-97) increased the earnings ceiling to $25 million. Thus, many more taxpayers are now eligible to use the much simpler cash method of accounting.Automatic Consent ChangesSmall business taxpayers may use the automatic consent procedures for five accounting method changes:switching from the overall accrual method to the overall cash method of accounting;opting out of UNICAP for certain costs, including self-constructed assets;accounting for inventory as non-incidental materials, or using the method used for applicable financial statements;replacing the percentage-of-completion method for long-term construction contracts; andstopping UNICAP for home construction contracts.Pending ApplicationsAn eligible small business that already filed a Form 3115 for one of these changes may convert the pending application to the automatic consent procedures by notifying the IRS before:September 2, 2018, orif later, when the IRS issues a letter ruling that grants or denies the change.The taxpayer must also submit a new Form 3115 under the automatic consent procedures.Comments RequestedFinally, the IRS requests comments on these and related changes, including:how the gross receipts test applies to each trade or business when a taxpayer is not a corporation or a partnership;what financial records are sufficient for inventory accounting; andaccounting method changes when a single trade or business has both exempt and non-exempt long-term contracts.IR-2018-160; Rev. Proc. 2018-40Login to read more tax news on CCH® AnswerConnect or CCH® Intelliconnect®.Not a subscriber? Sign up for a free trial or contact us for a representative.last_img read more

Thousands of Centurylink customers report phone, internet outages

first_imgOfficials are blaming a cut fiber line for that major Centurylink phone and internet outage in mid-Missouri on Monday.Construction crews in Kansas City cut the line, knocking out service in both Missouri and Kansas.Thousands of customers were affected, including 911 services in Boone County and state government offices in Jefferson City.Workers fixed the fiber by Monday evening.last_img

Management Engine Interface (MEI) and Serial over LAN (SOL) Device Driver Compatibility in Windows 7

first_imgLocate or download the released MEI and SOL Vista drivers from your OEMLocate the setup.exe file for the device to be installedRight click on the setup.exe and select propertiesSelect the Compatibility tabIn the compatibility mode section check the box “Run the program in compatibility mode for:”Select the following in the drop down “Windows Vista (Service Pack 2)”At the bottom of the properties window set the privilege level by checking the box in front of “Run the program as an administrator”Click ApplyClick OK to exit out of the properties windowDouble click on the setup.exe and follow the normal install/setup steps Updated August 2009These instructions are for Windows 7 builds 7077 and beyond.Several Intel based platforms contain Management Engine Interface (MEI) and Serial over LAN (SOL) devices.  Windows 7 drivers for these devices have been made available to OEMs for currently shipping platforms (2008 / 2009 model desktop and mobile PCs).  MEI and SOL Windows 7 driver support for previous generation PCs (2007 desktop and mobile) is planned for early Q1, ’10.To enable Windows 7 testing and evaluation,  prior to driver availability, MEI and SOL Vista drivers, either pre-loaded on your PC or available from the OEM, can be installed on the Windows 7 Release Candidate or RTM OS builds by utilizing Windows 7 compatibility mode.  The following instructions can be used to install the MEI and SOL Vista drivers:last_img read more

Turning the Tide: Close engagement with Government Agencies

first_imgHenry reviewed efforts underway with SPEC and the EPA to develop a Server Energy Efficiency Rating Tool (SERT), which measures both platform power consumption and computational efficiency. The tool is based on learning from SPECPower_ssj2008 and it has industry support from The Green Grid, CSCI, and other groups. On our last day here at IDF in session ECOS004, Henry L. Wong, a Senior Power Technologist at Intel, reviewed the world wide landscape of energy regulatory requirements and provided insight on how to comply and what is next. For servers, an ENERGY STAR program has been in place since 2009.  The ENERGY STAR requirement sets goals for system idle power and power supply efficiency based on the Climate Savers Computing Initiative Standards. Henry makes an effective argument that idle power is a less than ideal metric for server energy efficiency. For instance, a server with twice the performance and the same idle and active power should be considered twice as efficient (it will get twice the computation done for the same energy). However, a metric purely based on idle would not recognize this efficiency improvment. A critical element of the Data Center Energy Efficiency landscape is the role of government regulations and standards in establishing efficiency goals for servers and data centers. Intel has been an active participant in working with the Environmental Protection Agency on it’s ENERGY STAR program for Servers and Data Centers. When available, the SERT tool will be a huge advance for measuring server energy efficiency. Performance gains that are achievable in the computing industry are in many ways unique at improving productivity and efficiency in consumer and industrial activities. Increasing energy efficiency which provides more output (compute performance) for energy consumed is generally recognized as key solution to environmental and economic issues regulatory bodies face today.Since servers are industrial machines purchased to do computational work, it’s refreshing to see that “work output” may finally be reflected in official metrics that value efficiency.last_img read more

Data Center Technology Advances, Costs Decrease: Welcome to the Age of Deflation…

first_imgQuantitative easing, stimulus packages, rising oil prices, government spending and commodities costs rising globally have led many economists to predict wild swings in inflation on a global basis. Bloomberg reports that in some countries predicting double-digit inflationary scenarios over the coming years. These same economists are also predicting that greater austerity measures are required by the world’s governments in order to preserve sovereign viability whilst simultaneously recommending huge loan packages to “bail out” troubled economies from “themselves.”Around the world, economists, government planners and politicians continue to insist on the investment in infrastructure and services (health and social) primarily funded through taxation and loans against sovereignty as the “path to prosperity”. It is upon this backdrop that the technology industry has entered the largest cyclical growth in our industries history.It was truly a humbling experience that President Obama visited Intel’s Oregon manufacturing site to celebrate “American Innovation and American Manufacturing”. I am proud to have been a part of a series of great teams at Intel who have led the industry in technology innovation, manufacturing and supply chain leadership. However, the single most important factor in this innovation is deflation. We have lowered the cost of manufacure, the cost of acquistion and the cost to manage the supply chain. Let me explain…..Over the last 5 years, each generation of technology is better and less expensive than the last. In fact, the cost of a laptop computer has gone from $1600 in 2001, $1000 in 2005, approximately $600 today. 2.6x reduction in End User Cost in 10 years, not bad. The average price of an enterprise server has decreased over 50% in the last decade, while delivering over 10x the performance.  We have introduced new capabilities in smartphones, device storage, networking capacity, PC’s, TV’s, spectrum propagation and Server technology. Our data center technologies alone have reduced power consumption in the data center over 25% from previous generations just 3 years ago.  Virtualization technologies have improved on data center performance 8 times over the last 5 years. These improvements in efficiency, performance and virtualization have allowed us to realize billions of dollars, pounds, euros and yen in data center cost savings around the world. These costs are realized by IT departments whom budget have been “frozen” as a percentage of revenue for over 8 years.In the last 5 years over 1 billion new users have joined the digital age and are regularly accessing the internet. The cost of the equipment to use, view and input their thoughts, ideas has gone down almost 20% in that same time frame. As an industry of service providers, technology manufacturers and software developers we have made it easier and more accessible for the world to consume our products. Yet ironically, we are climbing a mountain of uncertainty when it comes to realizing the benefits of our technological advancements in society at large. Social networking and communications have been at the heart of political change, yet globally economists are applying 19th Century economic theory to “manage the crisis”. How can you apply 19th and Early 20th Century economic theory to world that relies on Facebook, Google, Baidu and Microsoft to sift through more data in one hour than these same theorists could digest in a lifetime?Over the next 5 years, Intel is committed to delivering technologies in the data center that will reduce carbon emissions by as much as 45 coal plants worldwide. Our data center efficiency technologies can reduce power consumption per 1000 servers as much as 20% from previous levels just 18 months ago. Our Intelligent Power Node Manager technology is being developed into it’s second generation to provide increased instrumentation for virtualization and cloud management software vendors to provide  interfaces for data center managers to optimize their workload and power consumption environments. We are delivering optimized virtualization silicon, with security (Intel TXT) across our entire server lineup in 2011, to insure trusted migration of workloads for virtualization and cloud computing implementations. We have introduced 10Gbe Ethernet technologies (x520) for unified networking to reduce the cable dependencies in Data Centers and hasten server, storage and networking consolidation. Further reducing the dependency on copper, nickel and gold requirements in the data center. We are delivering next generation storage devices which reduce power, consumption, mean time between failure and space requirements from previous generations by as much as 25%.As importantly, we are committed to working with an industry of like-minded Data Center executives through the Open Data Center Alliance to develop the key usage models for future innovations across the data center  which drive simplification, security and efficiency in daily operations of some of the worlds most complex environments.Perhaps it is just us “geeks of the industry” whom are committed to enter the “Age of Deflation”, where efficiency, optimization and cost reduction are a requirement for survival, not a theory of “austerity”. We have over a  billion people joining the digital discourse  and multiple billions of devices in the next 5 years, if we can extend  to them cost reduced technologies at the highest quality so that they can live in the most efficient manner possible, perhaps we can prove the “past” century economic theorists wrong. This isn’t the 18th, 19th or 20th century, we are manufacturing better technology with faster innovation at the most unprecedented level in human history. Let’s lead “Innovation in a Deflationary Economy” discourse over the next decade….it’s challenge to us all living in the 21st century.Let me know your thoughts….last_img read more

Security Sandboxes Challenged by Evolving Malware

first_imgMalware is working hard to undermine and punish those who employ security sandboxes.  Security innovators are working hard to stay one step ahead.Security sandboxes are a crucial tool in the battle against the constantly evolving efforts of malware writers.  Suspicious files can be placed in a digital sandbox where security can watch, look, and listen to determine what the code does, who it communicates with, and if it plays nice as expected.  This helps determine if file is benign or malicious.  The sandbox itself is a façade, designed to look and feel like a vulnerable system, yet in reality it is an isolated laboratory which is reinforced to allow malicious files to execute but not cause any real damage.  It is all under the control and watchful eye of the security toolset.  After analysis is complete, the entire digital sandbox is deleted, with whatever potentially harmful activities and changes disappearing with it.Many security vendors incorporate this technology to conduct analysis of downloads, executables, and even software updates to prosecute the malicious or allow good files to flow.  Similar tools are employed by forensic experts to dissect malware and unravel the inner workings.  The stratagem has proven worthwhile at confidently detecting dangerous code.  So much so, malware writers began embedding features into their software to detect when they have been put in a sandbox.  In order to remain elusive, upon detection the code either goes silent, temporarily acts innocent, or takes the preemptive measure of deleting itself, in hopes of avoiding being scrutinized by security researchers.Security has responded by making sandboxes stealthier to avoiding detection and allow malware to show its true nature, in a safe environment.  This hide-and-seek game has escalated, with new features being employed on both sides to remain undetected while attempting to discover their counterpart.In most instances it is passive contest.  That is, until Rombertik.  Given the adversarial nature of the industry, nothing stays secure forever, even security tools.  Rombertik takes a different approach and goes on the offensive to cause harm, incurring a discouraging cost on those employing security tools.Our security colleagues at Cisco have done a great job highlighting the anti-sandbox advances of the Rombertik malware in the Cisco 2015 Midyear Security Report.  They show how the creators of Rombertik have taken a divergent path from their more docile predecessors.  Instead of being passive and self-deleting or remaining quiet, it lashes out at the very systems attempting to analyze it.  It contains a number of mechanisms to undermine, overflow, and detect sandboxes.  Once it believes it is under the microscope, it attacks.  It attempts to overwrite the machine’s Master Boot Record (MBR) or destroy all files in the user’s home folder, with the goal of making the system inoperable after reboot.The Cisco report states “Rombertik may be a harbinger of what’s to come in the malware world, because malware authors are quick to adopt their colleagues’ successful tactics”.  It is an insightful report and I strongly recommend reading it.The idea of a safe area to test suspicious code is not new.  The original instantiation was simply an extra PC, which could be isolated and completely wiped after the analysis.  But that was not a very scalable or terribly efficient practice.  The revolution really came when software could create virtual sandboxes as needed.  Such environments are quick to create, easy to configure, and simple to delete and start anew.  Dozens or even hundreds could be created and be running simultaneously, each testing for malware.  But software has some inherent security limitations.  Malware can sometimes ‘jail break’ and escape the protected sandbox to cause real harm.  Additionally, the most sophisticated attackers can actually turn the tables to get under the virtual environment so the security environment is running in a sandbox managed by the attacker!This maneuvering gets more complex over time as both sides escalate their tactics through innovation.  How much longer can software created sandboxes remain one step ahead?  Nobody is sure.What is needed is a more robust means of building improved sandboxes.  Beneath software resides the hardware, which has the advantage of being the lowest part of the stack.  You cannot get ‘under’ the hardware and it is much more difficult to compromise than operating systems, applications, and data which run above.  Hardware advances may revolutionize the game with better sandboxes, more difficult to detect and undermine.  I think time will tell, but it seems to be where the battle is heading.  What cannot be foretold is if changes in hardware will be the winning salvo or just a new battlefield for the attackers and defenders to continue to maneuver in the game of cybersecurity. Twitter: @Matt_RosenquistIT Peer Network: My Previous PostsLinkedIn: http://linkedin.com/in/matthewrosenquistlast_img read more

Cybercriminals Next Targets: Long Term Prizes (part 2 of 2)

first_imgIn the previous blog, Cybercriminals Next Targets: Short Term Dangers (part 1 of 2)Opens in a new window, I outlined how cybercriminals will use the holiday season to victimize unwary consumers and target businesses. They will also dive deeper into leveraging Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices.  The longer-term outlook expands their reach to more bold and potentially more lucrative pastures.Rise of BlockchainOver the next year, blockchains are poised to take on the world of finance, commerce, healthcare, and potentially government services where transactions must have a permanent record and can be seen by the masses.  Originally started as the backbone for the emergence of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, blockchains can be used for so much more.  Imagine purchasing items and having a permanent record of your investment.  Land titles, in parts of the world where governments come and go with frequency, will persist even after a regime change, as they are part of an unalterable distributed public record.  Stock trading by individuals could happen at lightning speed, not requiring an account at one of the big trading houses to process your order and take a fee.  Your entire personal medical profile and records may be encrypted, but available to any doctor at a moment’s notice if you need them to be.  Blockchains will likely be important in India where government bank and spending accounts for each citizen could be protected from fraud and transactions processed quickly.The benefits are huge, motivating organizations to adopt the technology, which is already being explored in several sectors such as finance, commerce, digital contracts, and healthcare.  Once embraced, blockchains will control and protect a mind boggling amount of resources and power, guaranteeing they will be targeted by thieves, fraudsters, organized criminals, hacktivists, and even nation states.  This is where the true test of technology will be tempered.  Like encryption before it, the math is solid, but implementations are where vulnerabilities will exist.  Adopters will feel growing pains, as not all blockchains will be equal when it comes to cybersecurity.  The attackers will hunt the weakest in the herd for an easy and profitable meals.Social Media Rules our AttentionThe attention market has changed so much over the past few generations.  Newspapers and magazines gave way to radio, then television, the Internet, and now the social media platforms.  There is massive value in capturing people’s attention.  It shapes our perceptions of justice, tempts us with purchases, cajoles us into trust, fuels fame of celebrities, and is the lens we see the world through.  It is powerful on so many levels, which it is why it will be targeted by all manner of digital threats.Cyberthreats recognize that social media is now seen as a tool to shift public sentiment.  Expect terrorists, hacktivists, and nation states to explore various exploitations to support their objectives.  The first battles will be around the ability to promoted content, top search results, shuttering opposing views, and hacking accounts of influential people.  I also expect more campaigns to embarrass individuals and exposing their private online activities.  This will be done for profit and control, as well as amusement.RansomwareRansomware will continue to bring in tremendous amounts of money for cybercriminals.  The number of ransomware engines will likely decrease, but the overall impact will go up.  Like any software, every generation gets better and adds more features, which drives consolidation to the very best vendors.  This will also play out in this type of malware.  Very soon, just a handful of engines will dominate the field.  The result will be a greater overall impact as these better tools expand to target businesses, which are more lucrative when it comes to the extortion amounts.  Unfortunately, ransomware and extortion is a long term problem which is here to stay.A Stressful Holidays and New YearCriminals, like the rest of us, enjoy having extra money to spend during the holidays.  Expect more malicious activity for the end-of-year season, especially for those who are careless in their trust, and a sharp rise in fraudulent ecommerce, credit/debit card fraud, and identity thefts.  Ransomware will expand from a mostly consumer scourge to also impact businesses at higher payment levels for a much greater payoff.  Social media will be both a target by attackers as well as an emotional sounding board where we can express our discontent.  Longer term attacks, of a more strategic nature, will test early blockchain implementations and continue to explore ways to monetize pathetically weak IoT devices.  Banks, ATM’s, global financial transactions, and cryptocurrency will continue to be targeted for the foreseeable future, with ever bigger and bolder schemes. Interested in more? Follow me on Twitter (@Matt_Rosenquist)Opens in a new window and LinkedInOpens in a new window to hear insights and what is going on in cybersecurity.last_img read more

Intel® SGX with CSPs: Path to Innovation

first_imgIntel® technologies’ features and benefits depend on system configuration and may require enabled hardware, software or service activation. Performance varies depending on system configuration. No product or component can be absolutely secure. Check with your system manufacturer or retailer or learn more at www.intel.com.1 https://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3871416 On November 5th, Intel announced the latest Intel® Xeon® E-2100 processor targeted towards both entry servers and secure cloud services. The new Intel® Xeon® E processor features an advanced security technology—Intel® Software Guard Extensions (Intel® SGX)—that has the unique ability to isolate designated application code and data in-memory. Intel® SGX does this with hardware-based memory encryption, allowing application developers to partition their applications into CPU-hardened ‘enclaves’ or encrypted areas of execution in memory.According to Gartner Inc., worldwide public cloud services’ revenue is projected to total $186.4 billion by the end of this year.1 Many businesses are interested in adopting public cloud services, but are concerned about the security risks associated with moving off-prem, feeling like they have greater control in their own data centers. This unmet need provides CSPs with a great opportunity to invest in security-oriented services and differentiate from their competition.Collaborative InnovationIntel’s deep, collaborative partnerships with our customers underpin their continuous innovation and growth, enabling them to develop differentiated services in the market. Many CSPs are using Intel® Xeon® E-2100 processors with Intel® SGX to provide a trusted platform that helps increase data protection in use. Both Microsoft and IBM recently announced their own enhanced-security cloud services featuring Intel® SGX.Microsoft recently announced the Azure DC series of instances as part of their broader Azure* confidential computing efforts. These instances, powered by Intel® Xeon® E processors with Intel SGX technology, help enable customers to run highly sensitive applications in the public cloud, and extend Azure’s capability to help protect data in use. To find out more about this joint innovation, watch Microsoft’s Corey Sanders talk about Azure confidential computing using Intel® SGX and the “awesome partnership” between Microsoft and Intel.IBM also announced the IBM Cloud Data Shield* powered by Fortanix Runtime Encryption Platform* and Intel® SGX, which helps secure containerized applications without modification and helps protect sensitive data. With Intel® SGX, IBM’s customers can now build data protection capabilities either on bare metal servers, on containers using IBM Kubernetes, or on applications customers build on using IBM Cloud Data Shield. Watch this video with Jay Jubran, Nataraj Nagarathinam, and me on how IBM cloud advanced its security capabilities.Intel’s commitment to security is ongoing. There are other real-world pilots from top CSPs across a wide variety of use cases that I hope to go into more detail about in future blogs. Intel’s advantage is the ability to provide relentless support to help our customers succeed. When we hear our customers talk about their phenomenal experiences with our technologies, it inspires us to continuously innovate to provide differentiated services and solutions.For more information about Intel’s work with cloud service providers, please visit Intel.com/CSP, and to learn more about Intel SGX and our security technologies, please visit Intel.com/SGX or read Jesse Schrater’s blog here.last_img read more

Obama Doubles Down on Nukes Research

first_imgThe White House proposes new boosts for weapons work at the nation’s bomb labs as part of the budget rolled out yesterday:The total Department of Energy request for New Mexico’s Los Alamos National Laboratory totals $2.21 billion, up from $1.82 billion in 2010. The request for weapons-related activities is $1.6 billion, up from $1.3 billion, while nonproliferation activities would get $233 million, up from $188 million.The total request for Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque is $1.49 billion, an increase from $1.3 billion. Weapons activities would get $1.14 billion, compared with the 2010 total of $953 million, while nonproliferation would increase to $187 million from the current $171 million.The investment would ensure a smaller stockpile will take care of the nation’s needs; the stockpile is safe and secure; and other nations aren’t cheating as the U.S. moves “from a Cold War nuclear weapons complex … into a 21st century, nuclear security enterprise,” [National Nuclear Security Administration head Tom] D’Agostino said.Greg Mello, director of the nuclear watchdog Los Alamos Study Group, said budgets for NNSA and DOE have increased in recent years, but the nation “hasn’t seen any increase in weapons activities like this since the early years of Ronald Reagan.”last_img read more

The Curious Case of the Lusty Wasps

first_imgWhen a male wasp decides it’s time to settle down and start a family, he releases a chemical calling card in the form of pheromones, broadcasting his location, his availability, and, most importantly, his identity. Most other kinds of insects will either ignore his signal or be repelled by it, but female wasps of his own species will buzz over and get down to business. But how and why did different pheromone blends—and the species that prefer them—evolve in the first place? A new study offers a possible solution to this long-standing evolutionary mystery, suggesting that new sex pheromones may evolve through genetic mutation before potential mates develop the ability to detect them. Scientists have long been impressed by the perfect harmony of chemical communication among insects, especially when it comes to choosing mates by detecting and responding to the sex pheromones of only their own species. But scientists were puzzled by how such a delicate system evolved. If female wasps respond to only a specific blend of pheromones, males that produce even a subtly different blend shouldn’t have much luck mating and passing on their mutant genes. It seemed that in order for males to evolve new pheromones, the female insects would need some preexisting adaptation that would cause them to prefer the new chemical blend. But how could they evolve a preference for something they had never encountered and should, logic suggests, find off-putting? In essence, the question is which came first, a new species or its sex pheromone? In order to answer this question, a team of researchers in Germany turned to the Nasonia vitripennis wasp, a species famous for its propensity to lay its parasitic eggs on doomed fly pupae. When the scientists analyzed the N. vitripennis male sex pheromone, they found it contained two important chemicals, which they call RS and RR. RS also turns up in the male sex pheromones of another species of wasp, N. giraulti, whereas RR appears to be unique. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) N. vitripennis females preferred a blend of RS and RR, but a whiff of RS alone was enough to get them in the mood, the researchers report online today in Nature. RR on its own, however, did nothing for them, suggesting that it evolved later. N. giraulti females, meanwhile, did not discriminate between RS and the RS-RR blend. This suggests that the ability to produce the RS-RR mixture may have started off as a neutral genetic mutation among an earlier lineage of N. vitripennis males. As long as they were still emitting RS, they could continue to attract mates even as they also began to produce RR. The new study shows that the responding female wasps “seem to be forgiving to some extent,” says Christer Löfstedt, a chemical ecologist at Lund University in Sweden who was not involved in the research. “They are not turned off by the new compound that evolves,” which gives it a chance to spread through the population of males without being selected against. But not being selected against isn’t the same thing as being selected for, other experts caution. If N. vitripennis females ultimately come to prefer the RS-RR pheromone blend, they must eventually start associating it with males of their own species and evolve a way to recognize it. “What are the forces that cause [the females] to incorporate this new compound into the communication system?” asks Ring Carde, an entomologist from the University of California, Riverside, who was not involved in the study. The researchers “sort of leave that hanging.”last_img read more

Think New York Is Costly? In New Delhi, Seedy Goes for 8 Figures

first_imgReal estate prices in New Delhi, especially for bungalows built during the British Raj, are among the world’s highest. Related Itemslast_img

India’s Srishti Rana Crowned Miss Asia Pacific World 2013

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Yuvraj, Sehwag Ignored for World Cup 2015

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Tata to Decide Fate of UK Steelworks

first_imgUK union leaders have held talks in India ahead of a Tata Steel board meeting that could decide the fate of thousands of workers. Related Itemslast_img

Learn about the science behind U.S. decision to open combat roles to women

first_imgThe U.S. military will open all combat positions to women, Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter announced today.The landmark decision overturns a 1994 rule that bars women from numerous combat positions in the armed services. It also comes in the wake of a major effort by Pentagon researchers to understand the implications of putting women in combat positions, and studies aimed at developing new physical standards for admitting recruits.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Earlier this year, Science’s Kelly Servick took a look inside one such study—an exercise physiologist’s effort to set new standards for Air Force combat soldiers—and explored how its researchers and participants were navigating the controversial issue. Click here to read Kelly’s story.last_img read more

‘Personhood’ chimpanzees returned to owners, ending animal rights litigation

first_imgTwo New York research chimpanzees have been returned to the organization that owns them, effectively ending a 2-year legal battle to have the animals declared legal persons. The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY Stony Brook) transferred the animals—Hercules and Leo—back to the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana (NIRC) in early December, but the animal rights group behind the legal effort has vowed to keep fighting to release them from captivity.“We’re shifting from a legal to a political campaign,” says Steven Wise, the president of the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) in Coral Springs, Florida. “We’re going to ramp up pressure on the governor of Louisiana and the University of Louisiana system to free these chimpanzees.” NhRP first sued on behalf of Hercules and Leo in late 2013, arguing that the chimpanzees were too cognitively advanced to be confined in a lab. The group contended that the chimps should be covered by a writ of habeas corpus, which typically allows human prisoners to challenge their detention. But it lost this case, and several appeals, scoring only a minor victory last April when a New York supreme court justice ruled that SUNY Stony Brook had to appear in court to defend its possession of the animals. That judge too, though seemingly sympathetic to NhRP’s arguments, ultimately ruled in July that—as nonpersons—Hercules and Leo could not legally challenge their detention.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)NhRP appealed, hoping to move the animals to Save the Chimps, a Fort Pierce, Florida–based nonprofit that bills itself as the world’s largest chimpanzee sanctuary. But on 10 December 2015, SUNY Stony Brook transferred the 9-year-old chimps back to NIRC, which had loaned the animals to the university in 2011. The move complicates any further legal action, as the animals are no longer in New York’s jurisdiction.“We will continue to monitor them closely to ensure they remain healthy,” Ramesh Kolluru, the vice president for research at the University of Louisiana, Lafayette, told ScienceInsider through a university spokesperson. “At NIRC they will receive veterinary care, enrichment, exercise, and gradually be introduced to social housing with other chimpanzees … [They] will not be used for any research.” Indeed, according to new federal rules, neither NIRC nor any other facility can use chimpanzees in research without justifying that the work enhances the survival of the species.Susan Larson, an anatomist who used Hercules and Leo in studies of locomotion at SUNY Stony Brook, says that her research with the animals concluded in mid-2015. She tells ScienceInsider that she believes NIRC originally intended to retire the chimps directly to a sanctuary. “But when Steven Wise and the NhRP inserted themselves into the situation, everything became complicated … Stony Brook and NIRC both agreed that continuing to house them here while the legal wrangling was going on was not good for them, so they were returned to NIRC.”Wise says his group plans to petition Louisiana’s governor and the president of the University of Louisiana system to move Hercules and Leo to Save the Chimps. “They clearly don’t care about these animals,” Wise claims.Wise’s efforts aside, Save the Chimps is still in active discussions with NIRC to take the animals, says the sanctuary’s executive director, Molly Polidoroff. “We have yet to reach an agreement with them regarding the terms of the transfer of ownership, but they’ve told us we would be their first choice,” she says. “I’m convinced they really do care about the welfare of those chimps.” Save the Chimps, Polidoroff says, currently has 254 chimpanzees that live on 12 islands, each up to 2 hectares in size, on Florida’s east coast. “It’s just a wide open space,” she says. “It’s about as close as you can get to a natural habitat.”last_img read more

Malaria parasite found hiding out in North American deer

first_img The map shows sites where researchers conducted DNA analysis on deer and closely related wild hooved animals, like elk. Red dots indicate infected animals. A star depicts the Texas site, where a single deer tested positive for malaria in 1967. North America’s most popular game species, the white-tailed deer, harbors a secret: low levels of a malaria parasite that have only now been detected thanks to advanced DNA technology. Though this particular species of parasite poses little risk to humans, researchers say the find could reshape our understanding of malaria’s origins.There are more than 100 species of malaria parasites, distributed on every continent except Antarctica. Those that infect birds and lizards are widely distributed, even on seemingly isolated ocean islands, and certainly in the Americas. Yet scientists believed that the microorganisms that infect mammals originated in the Old World, mainly Africa and Asia.The new findings were discovered by chance. Researchers led by Ellen Martinsen, a biologist at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute’s genetics center in Washington, D.C., were searching for the source of malaria parasites in birds at the national zoo. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, which amplifies DNA to make it easier to study, they identified a genetic signature of an unexpected malaria parasite, Plasmodium odocoilei, previously unknown in the Americas. The researchers were able to obtain a large enough sample of blood from the mosquito’s enlarged abdomen to trace its origin to white-tailed deer. “We weren’t out there, testing a hypothesis,” Martinsen says. “We serendipitously stumbled upon this weird sequence.”Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)To find out how common the infections are, the researchers screened more than 300 white-tailed deer with PCR. They found 41 animals harbored the parasite, from 10 of the 17 states surveyed. No infected deer were identified in the west, but in the east, malaria parasites were widespread. Twenty-five percent of the animals tested at sites in Virginia and West Virginia carried them, the team reports today in Science Advances.No signs of the parasite turned up in the other hooved species they tested, including cows, gazelles, goats, elk, oryx, alpaca, donkeys, and Przewalski horses. The study marks the first finding of a malaria parasite species of mammals that is native to the Americas. (Scientists had largely discounted the significance of a 1967 report of what appears to be the same parasite in single specimen of white-tailed deer in Texas.)The new research suggests that these malaria parasites have a long evolutionary history in the New World, dating back to the ancestors of white-tailed deer that made their way to the continent across the Bering Land Bridge 2.3 million to 6 million years ago  Other as-yet-to-be discovered malaria parasites of mammals may be “hidden in plain sight,” the researchers write.The findings are especially surprising in light of how intensively the popular game species has been studied, says David Hewitt, a wildlife biologist at Texas A&M University, Kingsville, who was not involved in the research. “This story suggests there is still much we don’t know about the natural world.”Martinsen says future research should examine whether low-level parasite infection has caused disease in deer that previously has been undetected.center_img E. Martinsen et al., Sci. Adv. (2016) last_img read more

New material converts invisible, infrared energy into visible light

first_imgFlipping on a light whenever we want it is among the simplest, yet most valuable, benefits of modern life. That’s traditionally done by heating metal filaments in light bulbs until they glow a bright white. Now, researchers have come up with a more direct approach, by inventing a new material that converts photons from an infrared (IR) laser into visible light. The laser fires at a clear film of molecules consisting of tin and sulfur atoms arranged in a diamondlike pattern and surrounded by organic groups. The molecules in the film absorb the IR photons and re-emit that energy as higher-energy visible light photons. Much as piles of coins can be exchanged for a few crisp bills, the process uses the energy from many IR photons to produce fewer visible photons. This kind of conversion isn’t new. What is new is that the tin and sulfur film can direct the light into a single beam, the researchers report today in Science. Whereas most older conversion materials send out their visible photons in random directions, this new technique sends that light out in the same direction it came in. That gives it the ability to direct beams of the light in specific places, making the material useful for microscopes and novel projection systems.last_img read more

Alzheimer’s trial supports β amyloid origin of disease

first_imgDespite some of the headlines that may speed around the internet today, there is still no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, a degenerative brain disease that causes memory loss and dementia. Pharmaceutical companies have sunk billions of dollars into drugs aimed at preventing or reducing the disease’s hallmark plaques, abnormal brain deposits of a protein fragment called β amyloid, but a long list of failed clinical trials has led many to question that strategy. Now, newly published results from a closely watched clinical trial are being hailed as a big win by some in the Alzheimer’s treatment field. The trial data hint that an anti–β amyloid antibody drug called aducanumab warded off cognitive decline in people diagnosed with early Alzheimer’s. But the trial, an early test of the antibody’s safety, is still too small to prove conclusive, leading many others to caution against false hope.Nearly all the data from new study, published today in Nature, have been publicly presented before at conferences such as the 2015 Alzheimer’s Association meeting in Washington, D.C. This is the first time the results have been written up in a peer-reviewed journal, however, providing a “coherent, comprehensive, carefully vetted presentation of the data,” says neurologist Stephen Salloway of Brown University, one of the study investigators. “This is first time that a β amyloid–lowering drug is associated with a potential clinical benefit.”Pharmaceutical companies and academic researchers racing to develop anti–β amyloid drugs fervently hope that a fundamental misunderstanding of Alzheimer’s disease is not at the root of past clinical failures. To troubleshoot potential glitches, they’re trying many β amyloid–targeting strategies, from preventing its buildup and removing existing clumps to giving the drugs earlier in the disease. Aducanumab, an antibody made by the pharmaceutical company Biogen, binds to and clears clumps of β amyloid from the brain like many other antibodies that have been tested. But its origin is unique: It was derived from healthy older people who may have some natural resistance to Alzheimer’s disease, Salloway says.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)In the yearlong clinical trial, 165 participants with mild cognitive impairment or dementia from Alzheimer’s took either a 1-, 3-, 6-, or 10-mg/kg dose of aducanumab once a month, or a placebo. After 54 weeks, positron emission tomography brain scans revealed that those who had received the drug had fewer β amyloid deposits; the higher the dose, the greater the reduction in β amyloid. That represents a major breakthrough, says Robert Vassar, a neuroscientist at the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. “This is a remarkable therapeutic achievement and a tremendous advance for the field.”More tantalizing, the new trial also produced some indications of a cognitive benefit. Participants who took the largest 10-mg dose showed less decline on one of two memory tests than those receiving lower doses, or the placebo.Troublingly, however, 40 patients dropped out of the trial midway—half because of adverse side effects such as small hemorrhages and brain swelling. The side effects were more common at higher doses. That has been a persistent problem for those trying to target β amyloid using immunotherapies—a β amyloid vaccine trial many years ago was halted because it triggered dangerous brain inflammation.Overall, Alzheimer’s researchers are urging caution about the new drug results—even those who are co-authors on the paper. The study was “grossly underpowered” to determine whether cognition was actually better in people who took aducanumab, or a statistical fluke, notes David Knopman, a neurologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, and another trial investigator. Two much larger, 18-month-long phase III trials are now in progress to determine whether the memory benefits hold up in bigger groups—the point at which many other promising Alzheimer’s drugs have failed.last_img read more

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